Types of research and their characteristics
There are different types of research and each one can serve you at different times, it all depends on the needs of your study. This requires following a process and applying it to solve a problem or create new knowledge.
When you apply different research models you can ensure that you create reliable parameters to confirm or deny a hypothesis.
Thus, you can ensure that the project you are carrying out will provide valuable information to the industry or society.
Types of research and their classification
In general, a type of research is selected to improve the understanding of the study, especially when a data collection process must be carried out for a specific topic.
The most common types of research are:
Below we will detail all the types of research that exist according to the following aspects:
Types of research according to its purpose
There are two types of research according to their purpose:
Theoretical research: This type of research has the objective of obtaining information of a different nature, although this knowledge is not applied, but is only for general knowledge.
Applied Research: This type of research focuses on finding strategies to achieve a specific goal and putting them into practice. It is classified into two types:
- Technological applied research: It is used to generate new knowledge and put it into practice with the purpose of favoring people’s lives.
- Scientific Applied Research: Scientific research is used for the purpose of measuring specific variables to predict behavior. Generally, it is applied in the area of goods and services.
Types of research according to the depth of the object of study
Among the types of research is also found according to the level of depth. This can be classified into:
Exploratory research: Exploratory research has the objective of investigating and analyzing specific information that has not been deeply studied. That is, it is in charge of having a first approach so that later, a more detailed investigation can be carried out.
Descriptive research: It focuses on making a detailed report on the study phenomenon, its characteristics, and its configuration. He does not care about the causes or the consequences of this, he just wants to have a clear vision to understand its nature.
Explanatory research: With this type of research it is possible to find the relationship between the cause and consequence of a specific phenomenon. In this way, it is possible to know the reason for this and how it has reached its current state. Types of Evidence And How They Are Used In Investigations
Types of research according to the data used
Another type of existing research is based on the data used. This can be classified as:
Quantitative Research: This type of research is done to obtain and evaluate information using a statistical and mathematical approach. It uses a large amount of data coming from different sources to analyze and find discrepancies in it. Quantitative data is usually presented in the form of graphs, tables, and statistics. These can be collected with the help of surveys or questionnaires, and later, used to find a correlation or a pattern of behavior that can benefit the research topic.
Qualitative research: It is a research process that allows a deep understanding of the problems. It helps provide information on a specific topic, through the study of behaviors, emotions, and other aspects of human psychology that are open to interpretation. Qualitative data can be collected in the form of case studies, interviews, focus groups, etc. Most of the time it is descriptive and can simply be explained with the help of words, figures, and pictures.
Types of research according to the manipulation of variables
There are different types of research depending on the degree of manipulation of the variables. These can be:
Experimental research: It is used regularly in sociology and psychology, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine, etc. It is a collection of research designs that use manipulation and controlled testing to understand causal processes.
In general, one or more variables are manipulated to determine their effect on a dependent variable.
Quasi-experimental research: It is a unique methodology that is characterized in that there is no control group, no random selection, no random assignment, and/or no active manipulation.
Non-experimental research: Here the researcher cannot control, manipulate or alter the variable, but relies on interpretation, observation, or interactions to reach a conclusion, so he must rely on correlations, surveys, or case studies, and cannot prove a true cause-and-effect relationship.
Types of research according to your inference
The types of research according to their inference can be classified as follows:
Deductive investigation: This type of investigation focuses on studying reality and verifying or refuting the premise to be verified. In this way, if the premises are correct and the deductive method is applied correctly, the conclusion will also be correct.
Inductive Research: It begins with observations and theories are proposed towards the end of the research process as a result of the observations.
This approach aims to generate meanings from the collected data set to identify relationships that help build a theory. In general, it is based on learning from experience. Patterns, similarities, and regularities are observed to reach conclusions.
Hypothetico-deductive research: It is executed to create a scientific theory that will take into account the results obtained through direct observation and experimentation and that, through inference, predicts additional effects that can then be verified or refuted by empirical evidence derived from other experiments.